Central and Eastern Europe,
abbreviatedCEE, is a generic
term for the group of countries inCentral Europe,Southeast Europe,Northern Europe, andEastern Europe, usually meaning formercommunist statesinEurope. It is in use after the collapse of theIron Curtainin
1989–90. In scholarly literature the abbreviationsCEEorCEECare often used for this concept.
The term CEE includes all the Eastern bloc countries west of the post-World War II border with the former
Soviet Union, the independent states in former Yugoslavia (which were not
considered part of the Eastern bloc), and the three Baltic states –Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania – that chose not to join
the CIS with
the other 12 former republics of the USSR.
The transition countries in
Europe are thus classified today into two political-economic entities: CEE
The CEE countries are further subdivided by their accession status to the European
Union (EU): the eight first-wave accession countries that
joined the EU on 1 May 2004 (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Hungary, and Slovenia), the two second-wave accession
countries that joined on 1 January 2007 (Romania and Bulgaria) and the third-wave accession country
that joined on 1 July 2013 (Croatia). According to
the World Bank, "the transition is over"
for the 10 countries that joined the EU in 2004 and 2007.It can be also understood as
all countries of the Eastern Bloc.
CEE includes the following former soviet republics and socialist countries, which extend east from the border of Germany and south
from the Baltic Sea to the border with Greece:
·Estonia - member of the European Union and NATO
·Latvia - member of the European Union and NATO
·Lithuania - member of the European Union and NATO
·Germany (Eastern part)
- member of the European Union and NATO
·Czech Republic - member of the European Union and NATO
·Slovakia - member of the European Union and NATO
·Hungary - member of the European Union and NATO
·Poland - member of the European Union and NATO
·Romania - member of the European Union and NATO
·Bulgaria - member of the European Union and NATO
·Slovenia - member of the European Union and NATO
·Croatia - member of the European Union and NATO
·Albania - member of NATO
·Montenegro - formal invitation to join NATO
Central Europe lies
between Eastern and Western Europe.
The concept of Central Europe is based
on a common historical, social and cultural identity.
Central Europe is going through a phase
of "strategic awakening",with initiatives like
the CEI, Centrope or V4. While the region's economy shows high
disparities with regard to income,all Central European countries
are listed by the Human Development
Index as very highly developed.
The comprehension of the concept
of Central Europe is an ongoing source of controversy,though
the Visegrád Group constituents are almost
always included as de facto C.E. countries. Although
views on which countries belong to Central Europe are vastly varied, according
to many sources (see section Current views on Central Europe) the region
includes the states listed in the sections below.
placed in Southeastern Europe)
Depending on context, Central European
countries are sometimes grouped as Eastern, Western European countries,
collectively or individually but
some place them in Eastern Europe instead:for
instance Austria can be referred to as Central European, as well as Eastern
Other countries and regions
Some sources also add neighbouring
countries for historical (the former Austro-Hungarian and German Empires,
and modern Baltic states), based on geographical and/or
placed in Southeastern Europe)
·Romania (Transylvania and Bukovina)
The Baltic states,
geographically located inNorthern Europe,
have been considered part of Central Europe in the German tradition of the
term, Mittleuropa. Benelux countries
are generally considered a part of Western Europe, rather than Central Europe.
Nevertheless, they are occasionally mentioned in the Central European context
due to cultural, historical and linguistic ties.
Proficiency in English is ranked as high
or moderate, according to the EF English
·Slovenia (position 6)
·Luxembourg (position 8)
·Poland (position 9)
·Austria (position 10)
·Germany (position 11)
·Romania (position 16)
·Hungary (position 21)
·Czech Republic (position 18)
·Switzerland (position 19)
·Slovakia (position 25)
·Croatia (not ranked)
·Liechtenstein (not ranked)
Other languages, also popular (spoken by
over 5% as a second language):
Romania (17%), Germany (14%) and Austria (11%)
Slovenia (42%), Croatia (34%), Slovakia (22%), Poland (20%), Hungary (18%), the
Czech Republic (15%) and Romania (5%)
Romania (9%) and Slovakia (12%)
Croatia (14%), Slovenia (12%), Austria (9%) and Romania (7%)
Poland (28%), Slovakia (17%), the Czech Republic (13%) and Germany (6%)
the Czech Republic (16%)
The Germanic languages are a branch of the
Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of approximately
500 million people mainly in North America, Oceania, Central Europe,
Western and Northern Europe
The West Germanic branch includes the two most
widely spoken Germanic languages: English, with approximately 360–400 million
native speakers, and German, with over 100 million native speakers.
Other major West Germanic languages are Dutch with 23 million speakers, Low
German with approximately 5 million in Germany and 1.7 million in the Netherlands, and Afrikaans, an offshoot of Dutch, with over 7.2 million.
The East Germanic branch included Gothic,
Burgundian, and Vandalic, all of which are now extinct. The last to die off was
Crimean Gothic, spoken in the late 18th century in some isolated areas of
The SIL Ethnologue lists 48 different living
Germanic languages, of which 42 belong to the Western branch, and 6 to the
Northern branch. The total number of Germanic languages through history is
unknown, as some of them - especially East Germanic language -disappeared during
or shortly after the Migration Period.
The common ancestor of all of the languages in
this branch is called Proto-Germanic, also known as Common Germanic, which was
spoken in approximately the middle-1st millennium BC in Iron Age Scandinavia.
Proto-Germanic, along with all of its descendants, is characterized by a number
of unique linguistic features, most famously the consonant change known as
Early varieties of Germanic enter history with the Germanic tribes
moving south from Scandinavia in the 2nd century BC, to settle in the area of
today's northern Germany and southern Denmark.
However, other companies are specialised in translating, not only from regional or resident languages, but also within specific industries, like healthcare, legal, technical documents, websites and other such texts.
There are translation companies which are backed by global stock markets and various funds, with an annual turnover of hundreds of millions. Such as Transperfect, Semantix, Lionbridge, Welocalize, LanguageLine Solutions and other Top 100 companies. These Language Service Providers (LSP) are particularly important to medium-sized and small translation agencies, which tend to buy specialised language services from them. Some medium-sized translation agencies work only as providers to the Top 100, while also being on this list.
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